Alapaha Blue Blood Bulldog: Uncovering the Breed’s Unique Traits

Alapaha Blue Blood Bulldog close up blue merle

The Alapaha Blue Blood Bulldog is a unique breed known for its distinctive appearance and rich history. Originating in the Southern United States, this breed was developed to serve as a working dog capable of guarding plantations and herding livestock. With its muscular build and confident demeanor, the Alapaha Blue-Blood Bulldog makes a loyal family pet and an efficient protector. 

However, before searching for an Alapaha Bulldog puppy, it’s essential to understand this is both a rare breed and a working dog. Many dogs advertised as Alapahas are actually outcrossed with other breeds for exotic colors, and this is a threat to the future of the breed. So always make sure to research this unique dog thoroughly, by consulting experts and top-rated breeders such as Ken Texas OutBack Kennels. So, let’s dive into what you need to know about this unique bulldog.

So, What Is The Alapaha Blue Blood Bulldog? Breed Overview

The Alapaha Blue-Blood Bulldog is a rare American dog breed known for its unique appearance and protective nature. It’s a large, muscular, and athletic dog, characterized by its distinct coloration, including blue-gray coats. Originally bred for plantation work, they are now valued as loyal, intelligent family pets.

This is a breed that’s muscular and sturdy, much like a well-built athlete in the canine world. Imagine them as personal bodyguards, with a fierce look but a faithful heart, especially to you and your family.

Size & Appearance:

  • Weight: 55-90 lbs
  • Height: 18-24 inches
  • Recognizable by their broad chest and strong, athletic build.

Coat & Color:

  • Their coat is short but quite dense, ready for any kind of weather.
  • You’ll see them in various shades, like merle, brindle, and a range of browns and whites.


  • They’re like that friend who’s always ready to protect you.
  • With proper training, they’re as gentle as a breeze with family, showing loyalty that’s hard to match.

Lifespan & Health:

  • These buddies stick around for quite some time, often living 12-15 years.
  • You should watch out for common health concerns like hip dysplasia.

If you’re intrigued, you’re not alone. Many people seek this breed for its balance of toughness and tenderness. Get ready to be active though; they need regular walks, games, and a dose of daily fun!

For a more sight-centric description, marvel at photos that breeders of Alapaha Blue Blood Bulldogs have made available, reflecting their strong physique and varied colors. Or dive into the specifics of Canine Legend that details the historical and cultural significance of breeds like the Alapaha.

Alapaha Blue-Blood Bulldog History and Origin

The Alapaha Blue-Blood Bulldog is a breed with a rich history tied to the American South, specifically Georgia. Famed for their roles in herding, protection, and companionship, these dogs are a symbol of the old South’s plantation lifestyle.

Ancestral Breeds: What Breeds Make an Alapaha Blue-Blood Bulldog

The Alapaha’s lineage includes the now-extinct Mountain Bulldog, Old Southern White, and Old Country Bulldog, brought to America in the 18th century. These foundational breeds were recognized for their utility on farms and homes, rather than show qualities. This utility is reflected in today’s Alapaha, which shares its ancestry with the American Bulldog and cur-type dogs, having contributions from Spanish Mastiff-types, Greyhounds, and others.

Historical Significance

Initially a guardian and farm worker companion, the Alapaha Blue-Blood Bulldog has been a friend to the settlers along the Alapaha River in Georgia for over two centuries. Influenced by the protective nature of their ancestors and serving as catch dogs and herders, they were cherished by the pig herders and farmers. The breed survived in isolated pockets, honing its skills and preserving its heritage.

The Breed Today

Your Alapaha Blue-Blood Bulldog showcases adaptability and resilience. Now, the breed is nurtured not just in the United States but globally, keeping true to the standards of the Alapaha Blue-Blood Bulldog Association, prioritizing health, temperament, and conformation. Despite facing near extinction, passionate breeders have propelled the breed into present popularity.

Breed Variants

The Alapaha Blue-Blood Bulldog has several distinct bloodlines, each with unique characteristics:

  1. Otto Line: Originating from Southeastern U.S. Mountain stock dogs, this line was developed by breeders like Papa Buck Lane and others. Otto bulldogs were primarily used as stock dogs or varmint eradicators, valued for their physical soundness and lack of cowardice or noise sensitivity. This line persists in rural southern areas.
  2. Silver Dollar Line: Developed by William Chester, this line had a significant impact on the Alapaha’s foundation. Chester’s Black Jack, an 82-pound bulldog, was a key contributor. Chester believed in testing his dogs’ mettle on livestock, and his line was known for being man-aggressive, a trait he personally did not favor. The Silver Dollar lineage was a mix of Catahoula, Catch-weight APBT, and Mountain Bulldog.
  3. Cowdog Line: Initiated by Cecil Evans in Florida, this line sought to create the ultimate working stock dog. Evans used potent bulldog blood from English lines known for maintaining bull baiting power and tenacity. The Cowdog strain is a cross between working English Bulldogs and coursing Cur dogs, known for their ability to handle wild cattle.
  4. Catahoula Bull Line: Developed by Kenny Houston for big game hunting and catch dogs. This strain mainly came from Ol’ Southern Whites crossed with Catahoula Leopard Dogs. Houston’s dogs were known for their size (90 to 100 lbs), strength, and the elusive blue-merle color they often produced. This line was further developed by Howard Carnathan, who infused Catahoula traits to improve intelligence, quickness, and endurance.

Each bloodline emphasizes different traits but adheres to the same breeding criteria: health, temperament, and conformation, as set by the Alapaha Blue-Blood Bulldog Association® (ABBA). These lines all trace back to the southeastern United States and are now bred worldwide.

Throughout its history, the Alapaha has seen various crosses introduced, though not always beneficially. Unrecognized mixes, aiming to create exotic variants, impacted the breed’s authenticity. Today, careful breeding efforts aim to preserve the true characteristics of the Alapaha, distinguishing them from other bulldog types that may include traits from the Catahoula Leopard Dog or the Black Mouth Cur.

Kennel Club Recognition

As a rare breed, the Alapaha Blue-Blood Bulldog has struggled with recognition. Their distinctiveness and rarity once kept them out of mainstream kennel clubs. Now, dedicated registries like the ABBA work to protect the breed’s unique history and traits, ensuring their rightful place among recognized bulldogs. The understanding and celebration of their lineage, including associations with the American Bulldog, which you can learn about from Bulldog experts, further enrich the status of the Alapaha.

Physical Characteristics

Alapaha Blue Blood Bulldog red and white lying on grass

The Alapaha Blue Blood Bulldog is known for its distinctive features which exude strength and agility. This breed exhibits a harmonious balance of power and athleticism without the presence of excess bulk, and presents with a set of physical traits that are both functional and aesthetic.


These bulldogs boast a broad, muscular physique indicative of their lineage as working dogs. Their heads are square and robust, marked by a pronounced stop and a flat skull adorned with powerful muscles. The Alapaha’s eyes come in various colors (including the sought after “glass” eyes), fitting well within their strong facial structure. The overall appearance of the Alapaha is one of strength and vitality, with a look that’s keenly alive to its surroundings.

Size and Build

Males typically stand 20 to 24 inches tall at the withers and weigh between 70 and 90 pounds, whereas females are slightly smaller, standing 18 to 22 inches at the withers and weighing 55 to 75 pounds. These medium-sized dogs are not only powerful but also graceful in movement, with a body that is robust, wide, and squarely built.

Here’s a table displaying the size measurements of Alapaha Blue-Blood Bulldogs in both imperial and metric units:

GenderHeight at Withers (inches)Height at Withers (cm)Body Length (approximate)Body Length (approximate)Weight (pounds)Weight (kg)
Male20 – 2451 – 61VariesVaries70 – 9032 – 41
Female18 – 2246 – 56VariesVaries55 – 7525 – 34

Note: The body length of dogs can vary greatly depending on the individual, so only approximate ranges are provided for height and weight.

Coat and Color

The Alapaha possesses a short, close, glossy, and somewhat stiff coat, which is easy to groom and requires minimal maintenance. As for color, they can come in various shades, including black, brown, red, blue, and white, often with eye-catching patches or merle patterns. Despite their short fur, the Alapaha is not considered hypoallergenic. It is common for them to have at least 50 percent white in their coat paired with patches of these colors.

Temperament and Personality

red merle Alapaha Blue Blood Bulldog tugging on toy

The Alapaha Blue Blood Bulldog is known for its versatility as a protective family companion and a duty-bound working dog. They exhibit a strong temperament that is both loving and self-assured.

General Disposition

The Alapaha Blue Blood Bulldog’s temperament is a blend of determination and affection. They are trainable and social but require consistent guidance. These dogs are protective by nature, often described as dutiful protectors of their families. Their self-assured nature makes them excellent guard dogs.

Interaction with Children and Other Pets

With children, Alapahas tend to be gentle and loving, assuming they have been properly socialized. They do well with children that are part of their household, forming a bond that makes them a naturally protective companion. Alapahas can be territorial with other pets, but typically this is a sign of asserting dominance rather than outright aggression. Proper socialization is crucial when introducing them to other animals.

Common Behavioral Traits

Alapaha Blue Blood Bulldogs may show early signs of being guard dogs with a temperament that can be developed through consistent training. Around the age of 5 to 8 months for females, and 9 to 12 months for males, they begin to exhibit suspicion or protective behaviors, which can be shaped into suitable guarding instincts. Their behavior demands diligent socialization to ensure their strong protective traits are controlled and reliable.

Health and Lifespan

Caring for an Alapaha Blue Blood Bulldog means understanding their health and how to extend their years of companionship. A combination of genetics, diet, exercise, and preventive care shapes their wellbeing.

Average Lifespan

12 to 13 years is the expected range for an Alapaha Blue Blood Bulldog’s lifespan. These dogs often enjoy at least a decade of active life when they are well-cared for.

Common Health Issues

Unlike their English Bulldog cousins, Alapahas do not typically suffer from brachycephalic breathing issues thanks to their working dog lineage. However, large breed dogs can have certain health concerns, and it’s important to work with breeders who screen for health conditions such as:

A written health guarantee from your breeder can provide assurance about your dog’s health.

Preventative Care Tips

Regular vet check-ups are crucial in catching any health issues early on. Staying on top of your dog’s vaccination schedule is also key to preventing disease. Consider discussing the benefits of neutering your dog with your vet, which can prevent certain health issues and promote a longer lifespan. In addition to medical care, maintaining a healthy diet and regular exercise can substantially contribute to a healthier life for your Alapaha.

Exercise and Housing Needs

Alapaha Blue Blood Bulldog head turned looking up

When you bring an Alapaha Blue Blood Bulldog into your home, remember they’re quite agile and robust, requiring more exercise and space than less active breeds. They’re intelligent and trainable, so your commitment to their physical and mental well-being is crucial to their happiness.

Daily Exercise Requirements

Your Alapaha Blue Blood Bulldog is athletic and full of energy. This means they need:

  • At least 1-2 hours of exercise every day.
  • Activities should include walks, runs, and playtime to keep them physically fit and mentally stimulated.
  • Consistent training sessions also provide mental exercise and reinforce socialization. These are working dogs and do well with sports and protection training like in the video below:

Space Requirements

Given their larger size and zest for life:

  • A house with a yard is ideal so they can move around freely.
  • If you’re in an apartment, regular visits to a dog park are beneficial.
  • Space for a comfortable bed and safe toys is important for indoors.

Suitable Living Conditions

Your Alapaha Bulldog is more than just a pet; they can be a loyal guard dog with a protective temperament. To ensure they’re at their best:

  • Provide an environment that includes interaction with the family and other pets.
  • A routine helps them understand when it’s time to exercise and when to relax.
  • Remember, a well-exercised dog is generally calmer and more trainable inside the home.

Training and Socialization


The Alapaha Blue Blood Bulldog, due to its intelligence and eagerness to please, is generally trainable. As with most dogs, the key to effective training is consistency and positive reinforcement. Remember, your Alapaha might have a streak of stubbornness, so it’s important to be patient and firm.

Socialization Needs

Socialization is crucial for your Alapaha from an early age. Exposing your pet to different people, pets, and environments will help to develop a well-rounded temperament. This can prevent overprotectiveness, ensuring your Alapaha doesn’t become overly wary or aggressive towards strangers. Aim to make every new experience positive.

Behavioral Training Tips

  • Start Early: Behavioral training is easiest when your Alapaha is a puppy.
  • Positive Reinforcement: Use treats and praises to encourage desired behavior.
  • Guard Dog Training: If you’re training your Alapaha as a guard dog, balance protective behaviors with social skills.
  • Temperament Awareness: Understanding your dog’s individual temperament will guide your training approach.

Remember, the goal of training and socialization is to build a trusting relationship between you and your dog, ensuring that they’re both a loving pet and a competent guard dog if needed.

Diet and Nutrition

Dietary Needs

For your Alapaha Blue Blood Bulldog, a balanced diet is crucial. As an adult, they’ll need a mix of protein, fats, and carbohydrates to keep them healthy. Puppies, however, require more calories for growth. Commercial dry kibble that’s high in protein is often recommended, but ensure it’s suitable for their age group and weight. Some owners opt for a Bones and Raw Food (BARF) diet, though it’s important to approach this carefully to ensure nutritional balance.

Feeding Schedule

Puppies should eat small, frequent meals — ideally, three to four times a day. As they grow into adulthood, you can gradually reduce this to twice daily. Regular feeding times help prevent overeating and maintain a healthy weight. Remember to provide clean, fresh water at all times.

Special Dietary Considerations

Some Alapaha Blue Blood Bulldogs may have specific dietary needs due to allergies or sensitivities. A vet can help you identify these and recommend suitable alternatives. It’s also crucial to moderate the amount of treats since they can disrupt your dog’s diet. Too many treats can lead to weight gain, so keep these to a minimum and opt for healthy ones.

Always consult with a vet to tailor your dog’s diet to their individual needs. This way, you’ll ensure they receive the nutrients they need to live a long, healthy life.

Grooming Needs

Grooming your Alapaha Blue Blood Bulldog is important to keep their short, stiff coat healthy and to minimize shedding. Regular grooming is not only crucial for their appearance but also for their overall well-being.

Grooming Frequency

You should brush your dog’s coat at least once a week. This helps to remove dirt and loose hair, and it spreads natural oils throughout their coat, keeping it shiny and healthy.

Grooming Tools

The tools you’ll need for grooming include:

  • A rubber grooming mitt or hound glove: Great for the short coat of an Alapaha.
  • A bristle brush: Helps finish off the grooming process by capturing any leftover loose fur.
  • Nail clippers: Keep your dog’s nails at a comfortable length.
  • Ear cleaner and cotton balls: To clean their ears safely.
  • Toothbrush and dog toothpaste: For oral hygiene.

Note: Do not use human toothpaste as it is harmful to dogs.

Grooming Tips

  • Ears: Check your dog’s ears regularly for dirt and signs of infection. Gently clean them with a vet-approved solution.
  • Eyes: Wipe any discharge from around your dog’s eyes with a soft, damp cloth.
  • Teeth: Brush their teeth 2-3 times a week to prevent tartar build-up and gum disease.
  • When grooming, always be gentle and make it a positive experience for your Alapaha. If they seem uncomfortable or nervous, take a break and try again later.
  • Lastly, keep an eye out for any bumps, cuts, or skin irritations as you groom. If you notice anything unusual, it might be time for a trip to the vet.

Cost of Ownership

Initial Cost (Alapaha Blue-Blood Bulldog Puppy Price)

When you decide to add an Alapaha Blue Blood Bulldog to your family, you should know that the initial cost can be quite significant. Typically, puppy prices for this breed fall between $1,000 and $2,000. This price can fluctuate based on the breeder’s reputation, location, and the dog’s lineage. Before buying, ensure the puppy is healthy and the breeder is reputable.

Ongoing Costs

Once your Alapaha Blue Blood Bulldog settles in, you’ll need to budget for various expenses to keep your new friend healthy and happy.

  • Grooming: Their coat requires regular brushing to stay clean and shiny. Plan for professional grooming if you’re not comfortable doing it yourself.
  • Diet: Feeding your dog a balanced diet is crucial. Puppies need high-quality puppy food, while adults require a diet suited to their size and exercise levels.
  • Health: Vet checks are vital. These dogs can be prone to health issues like entropion or deafness, especially if they’re not bred responsibly.
  • Exercise: They need daily exercise to maintain a healthy weight.
  • Training: Training is essential, especially for a strong breed like this one. You might consider investing in obedience classes.
  • Healthcare: Regular veterinary care, including vaccinations, heartworm prevention, and flea treatment, is part of responsible dog ownership. Also, being a brachycephalic (short-nosed) breed, vet costs can be higher, especially if respiratory issues arise.

Remember to clean their ears, eyes, and teeth regularly, as neglecting these areas can lead to infections and added costs. A yearly vet visit can quickly run into hundreds of dollars, not including unforeseen issues or emergency care. So, setting aside a budget for unexpected health issues is also a smart move.

Adoption and Buying Tips

When looking to welcome an Alapaha Blue Blood Bulldog into your home, it’s crucial to make informed decisions whether adopting or purchasing from a breeder. Ensure ethical practices and verify the legitimacy of your source.

Where to Adopt/Buy

Adoption can be a rewarding way to find your Alapaha Blue Blood Bulldog. Checking with local rescue organizations or shelters may lead you to a dog in need of a home. If you’re set on a puppy or specific lineage, locating a reputable breeder is key. The Alapaha Blue Blood Bulldog Association (ABBA) provides a valuable resource to find a breeder committed to the breed’s standards.

What to Look for in a Breeder

A reputable breeder will be transparent and open to answering questions. They should confirm their dogs are registered with the ABBA and provide written guarantees. Health screening of the breeding stock is vital; ask if they conduct OFA, PennHip, or BAER tests. Insist on seeing a 3-generation pedigree of the breeding pair, and request at least 5 references from past puppy owners.

Choosing the Right Puppy/Dog

Selecting the right Alapaha Blue Blood Bulldog for your lifestyle is about more than appearance. Assess the dog’s temperament, observe its socialization with humans and other dogs, and inquire about the diet and health checks provided. This is a significant investment, so take your time to find a puppy or dog that aligns with your expectations and lifestyle.

Ethical Breeding Practices

Ethical breeding goes beyond just health checks; it includes creating a positive environment that promotes the wellbeing of the dogs. Avoid unethical breeders by consulting the ABBA’s banned breeders list. By choosing a breeder who prioritizes ethical practices, you support the preservation and improvement of the breed’s future.

Remember, bringing an Alapaha Blue Blood Bulldog into your family, whether through adoption or a breeder, should always be approached with care and responsibility.

Breed-Specific Considerations

Climate Suitability

Your Alapaha Blue Blood Bulldog has a short, stiff coat that can vary in color, including the striking blue-merle. This type of coat provides moderate protection from heat, but not so much from the cold. You should provide a warm shelter during winter and avoid excessive exposure to cold weather.

Compatibility with Lifestyle

As a prospective Alapaha owner, consider your daily routine. These bulldogs enjoy moderate exercise and can adapt to apartment living, provided they get enough physical activity. However, if you’re looking for a dog to feature in the media as a mascot or for its popularity, keep in mind the Alapaha’s distinct look and protective nature could fit certain roles well.

Special Needs (if any)

Alapaha Blue Blood Bulldogs are muscular and may require a diet that supports their energy levels. A diet with enough protein is important, and you might find that a silver dollar-sized portion per meal could be a practical guideline for feeding. Regular checkups for joint health are also essential due to their build.

Breed-Specific Legislation

Be aware of breed-specific legislation that could affect your life with an Alapaha. Certain areas may have regulations or restrictions specifically related to owning this breed, so it’s best to stay informed about local laws.

Remember, every dog is an individual. While the breed may have general characteristics, your Alapaha Blue Blood Bulldog’s personality and needs can vary. Adjust care and considerations to fit your specific pup.

50 Best Names For An Alapaha Blue-Blood Bulldog

When you bring home an Alapaha Blue Blood Bulldog, picking the right name is as important as choosing the best diet or the coziest bed. These dogs have a strong presence and deserve a name that suits their confident personality.

For the Boys:

  1. Duke
  2. Brutus
  3. King
  4. Tank
  5. Thor
  6. Gunner
  7. Moose
  8. Tucker
  9. Ace
  10. Bear
  11. Hawkeye
  12. Buster
  13. Spike
  14. Sarge
  15. Marley

Remember, your Bulldog might be the mascot of your home, so give him a name with a powerful ring to it.

For the Girls:

  1. Bella
  2. Daisy
  3. Luna
  4. Sadie
  5. Ruby
  6. Molly
  7. Lady
  8. Rosie
  9. Zoey
  10. Amelia
  11. Princess
  12. Cleo
  13. Stella
  14. Missy
  15. Ivy

Choosing a more popular name can help your Alapaha connect with others in social situations, like at the dog park or during training classes.

Inspired by Their Heritage:

  1. Savannah
  2. Georgia
  3. Dixie
  4. Ellie (short for ‘Rebel’)
  5. Raleigh

These names pay homage to the Alapaha’s Southern origins.

Media-Inspired Names:

  1. Stark
  2. Neo
  3. Gatsby
  4. Maverick
  5. Rocky

Pick a name that reminds you of a favorite character – this can be a fun conversation starter!

For a Touch of Humor:

  1. Waffles
  2. T-Bone
  3. Biscuit
  4. Godzilla
  5. Snickers

A lighthearted name is perfect if you want to bring a smile to people’s faces whenever you call out for your pup.

Choose wisely, and remember that your Alapaha’s name can be a reflection of both their personality and your personal style.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

The Alapaha Blue Blood Bulldog is a unique and fascinating breed that often brings up questions about its rarity, temperament, and differences from other bulldogs.

Are Alapaha Blue-Blood Bulldogs rare?

Your curiosity is understandable; Alapaha Blue Blood Bulldogs are indeed less common than other breeds. Their rarity is attributed to their selective breeding history among dedicated farmers and cattlemen.

Are Alapaha Blue Blood Bulldogs aggressive?

While their protective instincts are strong, Alapaha Blue Blood Bulldogs are not inherently aggressive. They do have a natural inclination to guard, but with proper socialization and training, they usually show a loyal and affectionate demeanor.

How do Alapaha Blue Blood Bulldogs and American Bulldogs differ?

The Alapaha Blue Blood Bulldog tends to be smaller and is known for being quite sharp and consistent in their behavior. In contrast, American Bulldogs are larger with varied temperaments. The true distinction lies in their unique lineage and roles they have been bred for.

What is the Difference Between the Olde English Bulldogge and the Alapaha Blue Blood Bulldog?

Unlike the Alapaha, which is a working breed developed through dedicated breeding for function, the Olde English Bulldogge is a re-creation breed valued more for looks and a gentle temperament. In fact, each breeder of the Olde English Bulldogge may have their own approach to obtaining these traits.

Can Alapaha Blue Blood Bulldogs show aggressive behavior towards people or other animals?

Responsible ownership and early training can prevent aggressive behavior in Alapaha Blue Blood Bulldogs. They may exhibit protectiveness but responding well to socialization efforts, they typically do not escalate to aggression without cause.

What are the common colors seen in Alapaha Blue Blood Bulldogs?

You might notice that Alapaha Blue Blood Bulldogs can exhibit interesting colors, including the striking ‘blue-merle’ or harlequin pattern and captivating ‘glass-eye’ or blue eyes. These unique features are believed to stem from their herding heritage.

Final Thoughts

When you’re considering an Alapaha Blue Blood Bulldog as your next furry companion, remember their impressive lineage. These dogs carry a sense of history and dignity in their genes. They are part of a noble tradition, originally bred for work and protection on Southern plantations.

You should be ready for a pup that needs your guidance and ample time for socialization. They look to their humans for leadership, so training is a must. With your commitment, they can be well-mannered and become a loyal part of your family.

Think about their health needs too. Just like any purebred dog, they might have specific genetic traits you’ll want to get familiar with, so you can spot any health issues early.

Don’t forget about the fun stuff! Imagine walks in the park where your Alapaha might just steal the show with their unique look and robust build. Picture playtime that not only keeps them happy but also helps strengthen your bond.

Here’s a quick checklist for future Alapaha owners:

  • Training: Start early and be consistent.
  • Exercise: Keep them active to maintain their health.
  • Socialization: Help them be their best around others.
  • Health: Regular check-ups to catch any issues.
  • Love: Show them they’re a valued part of your pack!

By keeping these tips in mind, you’ll help ensure your Alapaha Blue Blood Bulldog leads a happy, healthy life, and becomes the faithful friend you’re looking for.

Tamsin de la Harpe

Tamsin de la Harpe, with a lively spirit and 15 years of experience in dog training and behavior, brings a unique flair to the team. Based in South Africa, she is deeply engaged in rehabilitating dogs, focusing on their mental and nutritional health. Tamsin's approach to dog behavior is hands-on and heartfelt, shaped by her life with her own dogs and horses. Her journey in canine behavior is ongoing, as she continues advanced studies in this field.

Recent Posts